In the last several years, a growing number of states and municipalities have passed “ban the box” laws that to varying degrees prohibit employers from inquiring into a job applicant’s criminal background until later in the hiring process and/or restrict employers from using certain criminal conviction information in connection with their hiring decisions.  Recently, St. Louis, Missouri joined this group, while California and Hawaii expanded their existing prohibitions on criminal history inquiries.

St. Louis, Missouri

Under the St. Louis ban the box Ordinance (the “Ordinance”), which takes effect January 1, 2021, employers in St. Louis with 10 or more employees may not:

  1. Base a decision to hire or promote on an applicant’s criminal history, “unless the employer can demonstrate that the employment-related decision is based on all information available including the frequency, recentness and severity of the criminal history and the history is reasonably related to or bears upon the duties and responsibilities of the job position;”
  2. Inquire about a job applicant’s criminal history until after the employer has determined that the applicant is otherwise qualified for the job position, and interviewed the applicant, “except that such an inquiry may be made of all job applicants who are in the final selection pool from which the position will be filled;”
  3. Publish job advertisements, including electronically, that exclude applicants on the basis of criminal history;
  4. Include statements on job applications and other hiring forms, including electronic documents, that exclude applicants on the basis of criminal history;
  5. Inquire into, or require applicants to disclose their criminal history on initial job applications and other hiring forms, including electronic documents; and
  6. “Seek to obtain publicly available information” concerning job applicants’ criminal history.

With respect to prohibition Nos. 3 through 6, the Ordinance creates an exception where federal, state, or local law prohibits the employer from hiring an individual with a certain criminal history.


The California Fair Chance Act (“CFCA”) makes it an unlawful employment practice for an employer with five or more employees to include on an application for employment any question that seeks the disclosure of an applicant’s conviction history, or to inquire into or consider the conviction history of an applicant, until that applicant has received a conditional offer of employment. Additionally, the Act requires employers to: (a) make individualized assessments as to whether the conviction history has a direct adverse relationship with the specific duties of the job; and (b) provide notice under a specific procedure to employees if they intend to deny employment based on the conviction history.

Among other changes, new regulations promulgated by the California Fair Employment and Housing Council, effective October 1, 2020, expand the definition of an “applicant” to include individuals who begin work upon receiving a conditional offer of employment but before the employer has conducted or completed a criminal background check.  Ostensibly prompted by the delay some employers are encountering in obtaining relevant criminal history information due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the new rule ensures that individuals working pursuant to a conditional job offer still enjoy the protections afforded by the CFCA to “applicants.”

Also of note, the California Department of Fair Employment and Housing recently issued Frequently Asked Questions concerning the CFCA, detailing employers’ obligations under the law and providing guidance on how employers may conduct a compliant criminal background check.


Hawaii, which was one of the first states to create a “ban the box” law, recently added a notable amendment to the law. Effective September 15, 2020, SB 2193 prevents most private sector employers from considering felony convictions older than seven years, and misdemeanor convictions older than five years, reducing the look-back period from 10 years.

Other 2020 “Ban the Box” Developments

Maryland: As we previously reported, Maryland’s “ban the box” law, effective February 29, 2020, prohibits private employers with fifteen or more full-time employees from asking job applicants to disclose any criminal records or criminal accusations prior to the first in-person interview.

Virginia: Effective July 1, 2020, a new law that decriminalizes simple possession of marijuana also contains a “ban the box” provision prohibiting employers from requiring job applicants to disclose information concerning criminal charges, arrests, or convictions for simple possession of marijuana.

Suffolk County, New York: As we discuss here, effective August 25, 2020, Suffolk County employers with fifteen or more employees are prohibited from inquiring about a job applicant’s criminal convictions during the application process or before a first interview.

Waterloo, Iowa: Effective July 1, 2020, a new City ordinance prohibits employers with fifteen or more employees within the City of Waterloo from, among other acts, requiring applicants to disclose arrests, convictions, or pending criminal charges during the application process, including, but not limited to, any interview.  An employer, however, may “discuss” such information with an applicant if the applicant voluntarily discloses it.

*                            *                                  *

Employers covered by a “ban the box” law in one or more of the jurisdictions discussed above should review and, if necessary, update their policies and procedures, including job advertisements, applications, and other hiring (and where relevant, promotion) forms to ensure they are compliant with all applicable mandates.  Employers should also consider training personnel involved in the hiring process, particularly recruiters, human resources personnel, and those tasked with interviewing applicants and conducting criminal background checks.

Back to Workforce Bulletin Blog

Search This Blog

Blog Editors

Related Services



Jump to Page


Sign up to receive an email notification when new Workforce Bulletin posts are published:

Privacy Preference Center

When you visit any website, it may store or retrieve information on your browser, mostly in the form of cookies. This information might be about you, your preferences or your device and is mostly used to make the site work as you expect it to. The information does not usually directly identify you, but it can give you a more personalized web experience. Because we respect your right to privacy, you can choose not to allow some types of cookies. Click on the different category headings to find out more and change our default settings. However, blocking some types of cookies may impact your experience of the site and the services we are able to offer.

Strictly Necessary Cookies

These cookies are necessary for the website to function and cannot be switched off in our systems. They are usually only set in response to actions made by you which amount to a request for services, such as setting your privacy preferences, logging in or filling in forms. You can set your browser to block or alert you about these cookies, but some parts of the site will not then work. These cookies do not store any personally identifiable information.

Performance Cookies

These cookies allow us to count visits and traffic sources so we can measure and improve the performance of our site. They help us to know which pages are the most and least popular and see how visitors move around the site. All information these cookies collect is aggregated and therefore anonymous. If you do not allow these cookies we will not know when you have visited our site, and will not be able to monitor its performance.